The interdisciplinary contents and the Project-Based Learning approach for learning and teaching electronics, robotics and STEAM disciplines are the basis of the Arduino Education philosophy: to involve students and students in through practical activities and projects to enhance learning in a creative and collaborative way.
Arduino is a programmable low-cost hardware platform, with which it is possible to create “almost” circuits of all kinds for many applications, especially in the field of robotics and automation. It is based on an ATMEL Microcontroller, the ATMega168 / 328: for example the Arduino Uno mounts an ATMega328.
He was born in Ivrea, in 2005, from an idea of a university professor, an Electronics Engineer, Massimo Banzi, who decided to create a platform for his students, so as to facilitate them in the study of Interaction Design. It was a complete success, to the point of pushing the engineer to make this platform, Open Source (in reality it is Open Hardware) that is, it is possible to find on the official website www.arduino.cc, the circuits, the components, and even the instructions to make it yourself. What should really be of interest are the circuit diagrams: being Open, and therefore viewable by everyone, they can be continuously improved by the community, and thanks to them an incredible number of software libraries have been developed that make it really easy to interface with peripherals of any guy.
It was a group of students of the Computer Engineering faculty who wrote him the library, the IDE (portable library on every operating system), and the first APIs; thanks to these pre-engineers, Arduino still programs in a fluid, simple and very intuitive way. On the Internet, you can even find libraries already written according to our needs. For example, if we want to make some applications and we need some function in particular or some support for sensors we can resort to surfing the Internet.
There is to add very important detail, every program that is written on Arduino will naturally be looped until the power is removed from the device. When we connect it to a power source (for example the USB of the PC or even a very common 9V battery) it turns on and starts the program loaded by the IDE in an infinite loop. This continues until you kill it unless we remove the battery or unplug the cable.
This framework is designed for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects. The Arduino board is able to interact with the environment in which it is located by receiving information from a large variety of sensors. But it’s not just about sensors, Arduino can control lights, LEDs, motors and other actuators.
The programming language is based on Wiring (an Open-Source programming environment designed for an easy application to simplify programming in C and C ++) and on the Processing interface. Arduino-based projects can be independent or be interfaced with other software such as Processing, MaxMSP, Flash, and others. The design (EAGLE) and the schematic (CAD) are free, downloadable, and can be modified at will.
The Arduino Team is made up of Massimo Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino and David Mellis.
The pins are female connectors, which have multiple uses, which must be respected to avoid the risk of a short circuit which can also lead to the risk of fire and / or damage to the computer to which Arduino is connected.
- AREF – This pin adjusts the maximum resolution voltage of the analog inputs
- GND – ground
- PWM – The pins available with this functionality is 6. The PWM, or pulse width modulation allows you to create an adjustable current wave. This is very useful for controlling various electronic systems. The most stupid example is to control model-making servomotor.
- TX – RX – serial port
- RESET – This is a digital PIN. If the reading of this PIN = HIGH the controller resets
- PIN current output at 3.3V
- PIN 5V current output
- Vin– Current input PIN for controller power supply
- Analog in – Analog input PIN. They can vary precisely to perceive a DC current between 0 and 5V, resisting a value from 0 to 1023.
- Digital – digital PIN programmable to be input or output, they perceive whether there is current or not by returning LOW if there is no current and HIGH if there is current, or they can be programmed to generate maximum output current of 40mA.
Explanation of the Atmega328:
Atmega328 is the abbreviation of this microcontroller. The user-written program and all the basic configuration that allows Arduino to function correctly is saved within this component. When you buy Arduino you will receive one of these microcontrollers with only the Bootloader inside the ATMega. This “file” is a basic configuration that allows the use of dedicated software.
This setting can be changed to use different software and to change the position and configuration of the PINs.
Characteristics of the Arduino Duemilanove board
- Clock Speed 16 MHz
- EEPROM 512 bytes (ATmega168) or 1 KB (ATmega328)
- SRAM 1 KB (ATmega168) or 2 KB (ATmega328)
- Flash memory 16 KB (ATmega168) or 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 2kb used by bootloader
- DC current for PIN 3.3v 50 mA
- DC I / O current for PIN 40 mA
- Analog input PIN 6
- Digital I / O PIN 14 (including 6 PWM output)
- Power supply voltage limits 6-20V
- Power supply voltage 7-12V
- Operating voltage 5V
bootloader: it’s a piece of code written on the Arduino board chip. It allows you to check if a code, the sketch, is sent via the serial port. So if there is a code, it reads it and writes it into memory.